Yield, quality and nutritional value of crops and produce are dependent on various biochemical processes and networks. These processes are under tight spatial and temporal regulation of gene expression. Studies suggest that modulation in expression of genes affects various processes leading to genotype-dependent changes in specific crops. Understanding changes at genetic level in existing germplasm/ cultivars through various approaches and utilization of information generated to develop improved varieties can lead to enhancement in the yield to meet demand of increasing population. There is need to develop new strategies for engineering crops for better yield, stress tolerance and enhanced nutritional quality preferably using genes of plant origin. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Division, major objective is to develop understanding about various genetic determinants for yield and quality and superior plant varieties for enhanced yield and quality using plant genes for the benefits of formers and consumers. To fulfill these objectives, gene-mining, transgenic plant development andgenome-editing technologies are being used on various crops.